19 Keto Soups

Thanks to the good folks at Paleohacks for today’s recipe.

There’s nothing quite like cozying up on the couch with a warm bowl of rich and hearty soup. Unfortunately, hearty soup recipes often rely on high-carb ingredients like potatoes, rice, and noodles to achieve comfort food status.

Luckily, we know tons of Paleo-friendly soup recipes that fuel your body and nourish your belly – all while keeping you in ketosis. Think fat bomb hamburger soup loaded with veggies and beef, or a velvety, dairy-free celeriac soup with chorizo, sage crisps and walnuts. If you’re craving takeout, there’s keto-friendly hot and sour soup, or if you need something that takes hardly any effort, we have a go-to chipotle chicken soup you can make right in a slow cooker. Whatever you crave, there’s a healthy soup to enjoy this fall. Check out these 23 keto-friendly snacks to keep you going between meals.

This low-carb hamburger soup is loaded with healthy fats to keep your body in ketosis, thanks to the addition of buttery organic red palm oil.

Celeriac, also known as celery root, is a hearty root vegetable ideal for a smooth, creamy soup. In fact, it’s the perfect replacement for high-carb potatoes!

Craving creamy beef stroganoff without the carbs? Try this soup! It’s chock-full of umami steak and mushrooms, made velvety smooth with silky coconut cream.

Skip the takeout and make this Chinese mainstay soup at home. This healthy version is made with thin slices of pork tenderloin and gets its characteristic tang from gut-healthy apple cider vinegar.

This simple and satisfying butternut squash soup is spiced with fall flavors like cinnamon, nutmeg and thyme. Try blending in some cauliflower to make it even thicker.

Who doesn’t love those super simple recipes where all you have to do is dump everything in the slow cooker? Let your crockpot do all the work in this flavorful chipotle chicken soup recipe.

You might not typically think of salmon as soup-worthy, but this recipe will convert you. Use seafood broth to boost that savory, comforting factor.

Garnish this smoky, Spanish-inspired soup with diced avocado, and get ready to warm up quick.

This gorgeously-colored soup is loaded with anti-inflammatory turmeric, juicy chicken thighs, and tons of veggies. It’s good for you all-around.

A drizzle of nutty tahini and a scattering of crispy bacon on this asparagus soup makes for a work of art.

Feeling under the weather? Get the classic fix with this herb-filled chicken soup, made right in the crockpot.

What is it about this spinach and mushroom soup that makes it feel like “a hug in a bowl”? It’s loaded with health-boosting ingredients, like bone broth, collagen peptides, coconut vinegar, nutritional yeast and ghee.

Do you have a freezer full of frozen seafood like fish and shrimp? This is the soup you need to cook up tonight. Enjoy succulent seafood in a rich, creamy tomato broth.

Cassidy’s Craveable Creations | Meatball Soup

Spinach-packed beef meatballs are surrounded by veggies like zucchini, tomatoes and carrots in a rich broth of tomatoes, stock and balsamic vinegar.

Go Greek with this tangy lemon chicken soup with hearty kale and cauliflower rice.

Why slave over finicky cabbage rolls when you can get the same flavor and texture in soup form?

This autumnal pumpkin soup is loaded with warming spices like cinnamon, ginger, and nutmeg.

Bacon and cauliflower are the perfect couple in this creamy, chowder-like soup.

Boost your go-to tomato basil soup with thick slices of Italian sausage for a meal you can enjoy on its own. If you’re feeling particularly indulgent, serve with this cauliflower grilled cheese for dunking!

Thanks again to Paleohacks for today’s recipe. Have a great Sunday, everyone.

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Don’t Miss the Ancestral Event Of the Year—Paleo f(x) 2019!

Inline_Mark_SpeakingPaleo f(x), my favorite holistic health and fitness event in the world, returns to Austin, TX, April 26-28th! Yup, that’s right around the corner! In case you missed it the last 7 years, Paleo f(x) is the ultimate Who’s Who gathering of the ancestral health movement—as well as the best Primal party you’ll ever go to, hands down.

I’ll be one of the speakers in several Mastermind Panels, and I’ll be giving a talk on “The Top 5 Most Common Mistakes When Starting a Health Coaching Practice.” Our very own Elle Russ, host of the Primal Blueprint Podcast, will also be speaking as will my friend and co-author, Brad Kearns. You can look for our Primal Health Coach and Primal Kitchen teams, too, among the vendors.

You’ll also be getting deep inside the brains of other world-class speakers including New York Times bestselling authors, physicians, scientists, athletes, health entrepreneurs, fitness professionals, biohackers, and more. Robb Wolf will be joining me, along with Chris Kresser, Dr. Sarah Ballantyne, Dr. Michael Ruscio, Ben Greenfield, and dozens upon dozens more. You can register for the event and see a full list of speakers here.

I had such a great time rubbing elbows with thousands of like-minded Primal/Paleo enthusiasts at last year’s Paleo f(x). The Palmer Events Center featured all the biggest companies in the ancestral health sphere along with over 30 expert speakers. Overall, there wasn’t a dull moment, an empty belly, or a lack of enthusiasm among the pop-up community of Primal/Paleo attendees.

2019 promises to be even more of a thrill. The event features:

  • Keynotes: Be empowered and inspired by the thought leaders of the wellness movement at the keynote stage talks. (You’ll find me in this crew.)
  • Workshops: Work live with coaches and fitness experts at the small group expo floor workshops. Master your squat, conquer your kettlebell swing, or have fun at a “Primal Playout.”
  • Cooking Demos: Learn new mouth-watering Paleo recipes, up close and personal with your favorite bestselling cookbook authors and foodie bloggers.
  • Paleo On-Ramp: The special beginner-friendly stage has “Paleo 101” level talks that gently introduce you to real food and optimal living.
  • Health Expo: Discover an array of health-conscious, paleo-friendly companies and sample delicious foods on the expo floor.
  • Book Signings: Meet all your favorite authors and speakers at book signing meet and greets.
  • Networking: Connect with entrepreneurs, creatives, and other passionate “builders” in the Paleo f(x) networking lounge. Includes special guided networking sessions for bloggers, fitness professionals, and health practitioners. If mingling isn’t your thing, Paleo f(x) also offers special guided networking sessions. You’ll be matched with 8-12 other attendees who share your similar interests, so there’s no way you’ll leave without making personal and lasting relationships with your paleo/Primal tribe.
  • Special Events: Celebrate the community and join us for the Saturday Night Charity Festival.

I’ll also be walking the ground floor for the entire event, so it’s a great chance for us to meet. Or catch me at my talk or at one of the Mastermind sessions.

Paleo f(x) takes place at the Palmer Event Center, a premier space in downtown Austin, adjacent to the city’s best food, music, and culture. Last year our Primal presence filled the streets, pervading every corner of Austin for the weekend.

This event is just around the corner (and tickets traditionally sell out), so be sure to register today!

Check out the website to learn more about why you won’t want to miss this opportunity.

I look forward to seeing you there!

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join the largest paleo event in the world

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Weekly Link Love — Edition 22

Research of the Week

GMO soybean oil (made to have less PUFA and more MUFA) causes less obesity than conventional soybean oil

12 weeks of keto improve cognitive function, eating behavior, physical performance, and metabolic health in obese people.

Older adults are still capable of growing new neurons, except if they have Alzheimer’s.

More inflammation, more impulsivity.

Want to bulk up your pet mouse’s colon tumors? Give him American cola, not Mexican.

A combo of EGCG and ferulic acid reverses cognitive deficits in mice with Alzheimer’s.

New Primal Blueprint Podcasts

Episode 322: Dr. Robert Glover: Host Elle Russ chats with Dr. Robert Glover, author of No More Mr. Nice Guy.

Health Coach Radio Episode 5: Ste Lane: Hosts Laura Rupsis and Erin Power chat with Ste Lane, a Primal health coach highlighting the importance and vitality of mindset in the pursuit of health and fitness.

Each week, select Mark’s Daily Apple blog posts are prepared as Primal Blueprint Podcasts. Need to catch up on reading, but don’t have the time? Prefer to listen to articles while on the go? Check out the new blog post podcasts below, and subscribe to the Primal Blueprint Podcast here so you never miss an episode.

Media, Schmedia

The plaintiffs in an ongoing trial against Monsanto allege that the agrochemical company planted a mole in an independent lab to fake safety data for Roundup.

Primatologist Frans de Waal on human exceptionalism.

Interesting Blog Posts

How the timing of your training affects circadian rhythm.

These forest monks have it figured out.

Social Notes

Another “vegan” Youtuber got caught eating animal foods. You’ll never guess what happened next.

In last week’s SWS, I mentioned a product Kickstarter for Thin Ice, a wearable cold vest that claims to trigger thermogenesis. I want to make clear that I wasn’t recommending it, just expressing interest in the concept. I have no connection to the brand and no clue if the product actually does what it claims.

Everything Else

Look for a coffee-related giveaway this coming Monday on the blog. Has nothing to do with April Fool’s. (I never joke about coffee.)

Why are we “still waiting” for a male birth control pill? Maybe because the only viable one they’re trying to push lowers (an already historically low) testosterone.

Workism isn’t working.

Shmita, the ancient Jewish practice of agriculture.

Things I’m Up to and Interested In

We can do epidemiology, too: A new study on carb consumption and heart disease finds that “strong and probably causal” links between coronary heart disease and glycemic load/index “exist within populations.”

Concept I found interesting: Sex differences in pain sensations.

This is worrisome: A “sex recession.”

I’m intrigued: “In order to reveal how ‘peculiar a creature we are,’ Stewart-Williams offers an alien scientist’s perspective on modern human civilization, studying us as we would study animals in the wild.”

I’d send my kids here (if I had anymore of the right age): The first USDA-certified organic high school where learning to farm is a graduation requirement.

Question I’m Asking

Men: Would you take a birth control pill that lowers testosterone? Women: Would you want your men to take a birth control that lowers testosterone? And I guess this follows, too…how do you feel about women’s birth control pills’ effect on your own hormonal picture?

Recipe Corner

Time Capsule

One year ago (Mar 24– Mar 30)

Comment of the Week

“‘Physiological Functions and Metabolism of Endogenous Ethanol and Acetaldehyde in the Reindeer’ is a bit of light reading that pairs well with a smokey single malt from Islay on a cold winter night.”

– I’m waiting for someone to bottle endogenous reindeer moonshine, Aaron.

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The Definitive Guide To Autophagy (and 7 Ways To Induce It)

Biological systems are self-maintaining. They have to be. We don’t have maintenance workers, mechanics, troubleshooters that can “take a look inside” and make sure everything’s running smoothly. Doctors perform a kind of biological maintenance, but even they are working blind from the outside.

No, for life to sustain itself, it has to perform automatic maintenance work on its cells, tissues, organs, and biological processes. One of the most important types of biological maintenance is a process called autophagy.

Autophagy: the word comes from the Greek for “self-eating,” and that’s a very accurate description: Autophagy is when a cell consumes the parts of itself that are damaged or malfunctioning. Lysosomes—members of the innate immune system that also degrade pathogens—degrade the damaged cellular material, making it available for energy and other metabolites.  It’s cellular pruning, and it’s an important part of staving off the worst parts of the aging process.

In study after study, we find that impairment to or reductions of normal levels of autophagy are linked to almost every age-related degenerative disease and malady you can imagine.

  • Cancer: Autophagy can inhibit the establishment of cancer by removing malfunctioning cellular material before it becomes problematic. Once cancer is established, however, autophagy can enhance tumor growth.
  • Diabetes: Impaired autophagy enables the progression from obesity to diabetes via pancreatic beta cell degradation and insulin resistance. Impaired autophagy also accompanies the serious complications related to diabetes, like kidney disease and heart failure.
  • Heart disease: Autophagy plays an important role in all aspects of heart health.
  • Osteoporosis: Both human and animal studies indicate that autophagy dysfunction precedes osteoporosis.
  • Alzheimer’s disease: Early stage Alzheimer’s disease is linked to deficits in autophagy.
  • Muscle loss: Autophagy preserves muscle tissue; loss of autophagy begins the process of age-related muscle atrophy.

Okay, so autophagy is rather important. It’s fundamental to health.

But how does autophagy happen?

The way it’s supposed to happen is this:

Humans traditionally and historically lived in a very different food environment. Traditionally and historically, humans were feasters and fasters. While I don’t think our paleolithic ancestors were miserable, wretched, perpetually starving creatures scuttling from one rare meal to the next—the fossil records show incredibly robust remains, with powerful bones and healthy teeth and little sign of nutritional deficits—they also couldn’t stroll down to the local Whole Foods for a cart full of ingredients. Going without food from time to time was a fundamental aspect of human ancestral life.

They worked for their food. I don’t mean “sat in a cubicle to get a paycheck to spend on groceries.” I mean they expended calories to obtain food. They hunted—and sometimes came back empty handed. They dug and climbed and rooted around and gathered. They walked, ran, stalked, jumped, lifted. Movement was a necessity.

In short, they experienced energy deficits on a regular basis. And energy deficits, particularly sustained energy deficits, are the primary triggers for autophagy. Without energy deficits, you remain in fed mode and never quite hit the fasted mode required for autophagy.

Now compare that ancestral food environment to the modern food environment:

Almost no one goes hungry. Food is cheap and plentiful, with the tastiest and most calorie-rich stuff tending to be the cheapest and most widely available.

Few people have to physically work for their food. We drive to the store and walk a couple hundred steps, hand over some money, and—BOOM—obtain thirty thousand calories, just like that. Or someone comes to our house and delivers the food directly.

We eat all the time. Unless you set out to do it, chances are you’ll be grazing, snacking, and nibbling throughout the day. We’re in a perpetually fed state.

The average person in a modern society eating a modern industrial diet rarely goes long enough without eating something to trigger autophagy. Nor are they expending enough energy to create an energy deficit from the other end—the output. It’s understandable. If our ancestors were thrust into our current situation, many would fall all over themselves to take advantage of the modern food environment. But that doesn’t make it desirable, or good for you. It just means that figuring out how to trigger autophagy becomes that much more vital for modern humans.

Here are 7 ways to induce autophagy with regular lifestyle choices.

1) Fast

There’s no better way to quickly and reliably induce a large energy deficit than not eating anything at all. There are no definitive studies identifying “optimal” fasting guidelines for autophagy in humans. Longer fasts probably allow deeper levels of autophagy, but shorter fasts are no slouch.

2) Get Keto-Adapted

When you’re keto- and fat-adapted, it takes you less time to hit serious autophagy upon commencing a fast. You’re already halfway there.

3) Train Regularly

With exercise-related autophagy, the biggest effects are seen with lifelong training, not acute. In mice, for example, the mice who are subjected to lifelong exercise see the most autophagy-related benefits. In people, those who have played soccer (football) for their entire lives have far more autophagy-related markers of gene activity than people of the same age who have not trained their whole lives.

4) Train Hard

In studies of acute exercise-induced autophagy, the intensity of the exercise is the biggest predictor of autophagy—even more than whether the athletes are in the fed or fasted state.

5) Drink Coffee

At least in mice, both caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee induce autophagy in the liver, muscle tissue, and heart. This effect persists even when the coffee is given alongside ad libitum food. These mice didn’t have to fast for the coffee to induce autophagy.

Certain nutrients can trigger autophagy, too….

6) Eat Turmeric

Curcumin, the primary phytonutrient in turmeric, is especially effective at inducing autophagy in the mitochondria (mitophagy).

7) Consume Extra Virgin Olive Oil

The anticancer potential of its main antioxidant, oleuropein, likely occurs via autophagy.

Disclaimer: The autophagy/nutrient literature is anything but definitive. Most studies take place in test tube settings, not living humans. Eating some turmeric probably won’t flip a switch and trigger autophagy right away, but it won’t hurt.

Autophagy is a long game.

This can’t be underscored enough: Autophagy is a lifelong pursuit attained by regular doses of exercise and not overeating every time you sit down to a meal. Staying so ketotic your pee tests look like a Prince album cover, doing epic 7-day fasts every month, fasting every other day, making sure you end every day with fully depleted liver glycogen—while these strategies might be “effective,” obsessing over their measures to hit some “optimal” level of constant autophagy isn’t the point and is likely to activate or trigger neurotic behavior.

Besides, we don’t know what “optimal autophagy” looks like. Autophagy isn’t easy to measure in live humans. You can’t order an “autophagy test” from your doc. We don’t even know if more autophagy is necessarily better. There’s the fact that unchecked autophagy can actually increase existing cancer in some cases. There’s the fact that too much autophagy in the wrong place might be bad. We just don’t know very much. Autophagy is important. It’s good to have some happening. That’s what we have to go on.

Putting These Tips Into Practice

Autophagy happens largely when you just live a healthy lifestyle. Get some exercise and daily activity. Go hard every now and then. Sleep deeply. Recover well. Don’t eat carbohydrates you don’t need and haven’t earned (and I don’t just mean “earned through glycogen depleting-exercise”). Reach ketosis sometimes. Don’t eat more food than you need. Drink coffee, even decaf.

All those caveats aside, I see the utility in doing a big “autophagy session” a few times a year. Here’s how mine looks:

  1. Do a big training session incorporating strength training and sprints. Lots of intense bursts. This will trigger autophagy.
  2. Fast for two or three days. This will push autophagy even further.
  3. Stay busy throughout the fast. Take as many walks as possible. This will really ramp up the fat burning and get you quickly into ketosis, another autophagy trigger.
  4. Drink coffee throughout the fast. Coffee is a nice boost to autophagy. Decaf is fine.

I know people are often skeptical of using “Grok logic,” but it’s likely that most human ancestors experienced similar “perfect storms” of deprivation-induced autophagy on occasion throughout the year. You track an animal for a couple days and come up short, or it takes that long to make the kill. You nibble on various stimulants plucked from the land along the way. You walk a ton and sprint some, then lift heavy. And finally, maybe, you get to eat.

If you find yourself aging well, you’re on the right track. If you’re not progressing from obesity to diabetes, you’re good to go. If you’re maintaining and even building your muscle despite qualifying for the blue plate special, you’ve probably dipping into the autophagy pathway. If you’re thinking clearly, I wouldn’t worry. Obviously, we can’t really see what’s happening on the inside. But if everything you can verify is going well, keep it up.

That’s it for today, folks. If you have any more questions about autophagy, leave them down below and I’ll try to get to all of them in future posts.

Thanks for reading!

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References:

Yang ZJ, Chee CE, Huang S, Sinicrope FA. The role of autophagy in cancer: therapeutic implications. Mol Cancer Ther. 2011;10(9):1533-41.

Barlow AD, Thomas DC. Autophagy in diabetes: ?-cell dysfunction, insulin resistance, and complications. DNA Cell Biol. 2015;34(4):252-60.

Sasaki Y, Ikeda Y, Iwabayashi M, Akasaki Y, Ohishi M. The Impact of Autophagy on Cardiovascular Senescence and Diseases. Int Heart J. 2017;58(5):666-673.

Florencio-silva R, Sasso GR, Simões MJ, et al. Osteoporosis and autophagy: What is the relationship?. Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992). 2017;63(2):173-179.

Li Q, Liu Y, Sun M. Autophagy and Alzheimer’s Disease. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2017;37(3):377-388.

Jiao J, Demontis F. Skeletal muscle autophagy and its role in sarcopenia and organismal aging. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2017;34:1-6.

Schwalm C, Jamart C, Benoit N, et al. Activation of autophagy in human skeletal muscle is dependent on exercise intensity and AMPK activation. FASEB J. 2015;29(8):3515-26.

De oliveira MR, Jardim FR, Setzer WN, Nabavi SM, Nabavi SF. Curcumin, mitochondrial biogenesis, and mitophagy: Exploring recent data and indicating future needs. Biotechnol Adv. 2016;34(5):813-826.

Przychodzen P, Wyszkowska R, Gorzynik-debicka M, Kostrzewa T, Kuban-jankowska A, Gorska-ponikowska M. Anticancer Potential of Oleuropein, the Polyphenol of Olive Oil, With 2-Methoxyestradiol, Separately or in Combination, in Human Osteosarcoma Cells. Anticancer Res. 2019;39(3):1243-1251.

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Seasonal Eating: 9 Tasty Springtime Recipes

We love comfort food as much as the next Primal type, but it’s something of a relief to welcome the lighter fare of spring. With early crops of greens, berries, radishes, herbs, asparagus, and young onions (to name just a few), there’s a definite call to cooler dishes and lighter cooking. It’s a traditional time, too, for citrusy flavors and springtime classics like lamb.

We’ve got nine of our favorites today—everything from cool drinks to fresh salads to hearty but bright-tasting dinners. Grab some inspiration (and leave a comment with your spring favorites) today.

Fresh Salads

Strawberry Spinach and Basil Salad

Simple, fresh, and sweet, this salad is a perfect accompaniment to a weekend omelet breakfast or a grilled chicken dinner, but it’s also a satisfying light meal in its own right.

Thousand Island Kale and Radish Salad

Combining the classic flavor of Thousand Island with the mild bite of spring radishes makes for an easy, flavorful salad dish. Serve with roast chicken or fish, or enjoy all on its own.

Keto Chicken Citrus Salad

It’s no secret that Mark’s (current) favorite dressing is Lemon Turmeric, and there’s no end to the salad combinations he uses it with. With his go-to ingredients, chicken and avocado, this one’s become a fresher take on the Big-Ass Salad tradition.

Savory Main Courses

Lemon and Sage Chicken In Cream

Rich, creamy and citrusy, this recipe blends the best of succulent meat with a smooth and flavorful sauce. The addictive lemon and sage scent alone is reason enough to cook this spring dish.

Salmon Steak Salad With Lemon Turmeric Dressing

Broiled salmon steaks are served over seared tomatoes and peppery arugula for a warm and bright main course.

Leg of Lamb with Pistachio Pesto

Rich and tender, this leg of lamb (cooked with the joules sous vide method or regular oven method) is as foolproof to make as it is delicious to eat. Serve this cut with pistachio pesto and roasted potatoes or a low-carb side of your choice.

Turmeric and Ginger Fish

This recipe is a good reason to grab that bottle of turmeric in your spice rack and put it to work adding bright orange color and extra flavor to mild fish like cod. The slightly bitter taste of turmeric all but disappears when cooked with buttery ghee, ginger and garlic. Serve with a favorite salad or another spring favorite, asparagus.

Cool Drinks

Low-Carb White Mint Julep

With a bright taste and fresh bite, mint juleps are perfect for warm spring (or summer days). Usually they’re made with bourbon and syrup, but here’s a lighter, less potent version of a julep with just as much classic flavor.

Strawberry Rosé Mocktail

Yes, it’ll be strawberry season before you know it (not that most of us with a local grocery store really need to wait…). For now—or later this spring—here’s a refreshing three-ingredient mocktail that includes a healthy dose of vitamin C and collagen.

Have a favorite here, or did a certain recipe inspire? Have other great spring eating ideas to add? Share them below, and have a great week, everyone.

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After Six Months I Was In Remission

It’s Monday, everyone! And that means another Primal Blueprint Real Life Story from a Mark’s Daily Apple reader. If you have your own success story and would like to share it with me and the Mark’s Daily Apple community please contact me here. I’ll continue to publish these each Monday as long as they keep coming in. Thank you for reading!

I wanted to send an update since my last success story that you shared. But for the sake of the success stories (and first-time readers), I’ll give a little background info as well.

I was diagnosed with Crohn’s Disease back in 2000 at the young age of 13. For many years, I had many health-related ups and downs, and I was constantly in and out of remission. Not only did I suffer from painful gut-related issues, but I suffered from many other side-effects as well such as liver issues, extreme migraines, depression, thyroid nodules, rashes, and fragile hair and nails.

Since the day I was diagnosed, my GI doctor had me on pharmaceuticals which he would increase or change when I got flare-ups. I spent my youth in and out of doctor’s offices, hospitals, and urgent care centers getting poked at, screened and examined. I usually left in tears, hopeless, told that I would always have to be on medications.

Fast forward to the beginning of 2017 when I met my Holistic Nutritionist. She introduced me to Functional Medicine. She immediately recommended a change in diet—something NO doctor had even mentioned to me before! And she added specific supplements to my protocol, supplements in which my body was lacking and completely depleted of because my gut wasn’t absorbing nutrients.

She started me on the path of Holistic Health: eating right and natural methods to take care of my body and ailments. Within the first couple of months I started feeling better, and after 6 months I was in remission.

One of the first things I changed was my diet. I started on a Paleo/Autoimmune Protocol, and things continued getting better from there. I started doing my own research, and that’s when I discovered Mark Sisson, the Primal Blueprint and Mark’s Daily Apple!

Mark’s recipes and informative articles helped me a lot. He’s a huge inspiration to me. Not only is going Primal one of the better health decisions I’ve made, but his recipes are deliciously amazing as well. I truly enjoy being in the kitchen…something I used to dread!

Since following the Primal Lifestyle, I’ve become healthier than ever before. I stay active, eat right and nourish my body with HEALTHY choices, get outdoors, and try to maintain a positive mentality.

I’m no longer depressed, sick, or thin—in fact, I can’t even remember the last time I was “stay-at-home-in-bed” sick! I’ve been off ALL pharmaceuticals for 17 months! I have energy all day long and I’ve been able to travel abroad without any issues; this past summer I spent 1 month volunteering on an organic herbal farm in Portugal, afterwards I went to the Austrian Alps, and then flew across continents to meet my husband in Cartagena, Colombia to visit his family. I traveled all summer without a single Crohn’s flare-up or getting sick. Traveling like that is something I’d never been able to do before switching my lifestyle.

The knowledge I’ve learned—and continue to learn—helps me maintain my current health, and I’m incredibly thankful to all my health “teachers” out there, including you, Mark!

Because I’m a true believer in Holistic/Functional Health, I started a collaborative health blog called Honor Thy Gut to get the word out that holistic healing does work. I like to share uplifting stories, tips and advice that has helped me heal. I encourage my readers to add to the conversation as well! My articles are often inspired by Mark Sisson, Dr. Mark Hyman, Dr Axe, John Douillard, among many others.

Happy Healing to you all!

Larissa Nowak-Lobo

The readers featured in our success stories share their experiences in their own words. The Primal Blueprint and Keto Reset diets are not intended as medical intervention or diagnosis. Nor are they replacements for working with a qualified healthcare practitioner. It’s important to speak with your doctor before beginning any new dietary or lifestyle program, and please consult your physician before making any changes to medication or treatment protocols. Each individual’s results may vary.

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2 Meat, 2 Pepper Chili

Thanks to the good folks at Paleohacks for today’s recipe.

This rich keto chili is made with two types of beef and slow cooked in bone broth for stick-to-your-ribs heartiness. This rich and simple crockpot recipe combines sirloin steak, ground bison, sweet bell peppers, and smoky ancho chiles for a recipe that is anything but ordinary. Best of all, this chili can be prepped ahead of time for a meal that reheats in a pinch throughout a busy week.

The stock for this chili is made from bone broth, or slow-simmered beef bones. When bones simmer in water overnight, they release their amino acids into the liquid, creating a liquid golden broth full of gut-healing collagen. We love this potent and flavorful bone broth recipe with leeks and rosemary, but you can also purchase plain bone broth online or in most grocery stores if you’re in a pinch.

Most of the flavor in this chili comes from dried ancho chiles. These are made from smoked poblano peppers, condensing their sweetness and adding a complexity to chili that raw pepper alone can’t match. This pepper is not spicy, making it one the whole family can enjoy. You can find dried ancho chiles in the ethnic foods aisle of most grocery stores.

Lean ground bison and tender chunks of sirloin beef are browned in a skillet before being added to the crockpot. This gives them a chance to caramelize, deepening the flavor of the chili. Both grass-fed beef and bison are rich in omega-3 fatty acids and contain more free-radical fighting antioxidants like vitamin-E than their factory-farm counterparts.

Get started by heating ghee in a large skillet over medium heat. Add onions and garlic. Sauté for 5 minutes, then pour them into the crockpot. Next, turn up the heat to medium-high and add the diced steak and ground bison to the skillet to brown for seven or eight minutes. Drain and discard any fat, then pour the meat over the onions in the crockpot.

Add the ancho chiles, tomatoes, bone broth and dried herbs to the crockpot, then cover and set to low heat for six hours. Add a chopped green bell pepper to the crockpot for the last hour of cooking to help keep it crisp. Ladle the chili into bowls and garnish with freshly chopped cilantro.

Looking for more keto recipes? Check out these 23 paleo and keto-friendly snacks.

Time In the Kitchen: 10 minutes

Cook Time: 6 hours, 15 minutes

Servings: 6

Tools:

  • Large skillet
  • Crockpot

Ingredients:

  • 1 tbsp ghee
  • 1 small white onion, chopped
  • 1 tsp minced garlic
  • 1/2 lb sirloin steak, cubed
  • 1 lb ground bison
  • 2 medium, dried ancho chili peppers, finely chopped
  • 2 (14.5 oz) cans diced tomatoes
  • 2 cups beef or bison bone broth
  • 2 tbsp cumin
  • 1 tsp oregano
  • 1 tsp smoked paprika
  • 1/2 tsp sea salt
  • 1 green bell pepper, chopped
  • Chopped cilantro, for serving

Instructions:

1. Heat ghee in a skillet over medium heat. Add the onions and garlic and sauté for 5 minutes, stirring occasionally. Pour the onions into the crockpot and return skillet to the stovetop.

2. Add the diced steak and ground bison to the skillet and turn the heat up to medium-high. Brown the meat for 7-8 minutes, stirring occasionally. Drain and discard any fat. Pour the meat into the crockpot.

3. Add the ancho chiles, tomatoes, bone broth, cumin, oregano, paprika and sea salt to the crockpot. Cover and set to low heat for 5 hours.

4. Add the bell pepper to the crockpot and cook on low heat for one more hour.

5. Ladle the chili into bowls and garnish with cilantro.

Nutritional Info:

  • Calories: 257
  • Carbs: 4.7 grams
  • Fat: 11 grams
  • Protein: 34 grams

Thanks again to Paleohacks for today’s recipe. Have a great Sunday, everyone.

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Weekly Link Love — Edition 21

Research of the Week

“Thermally-abused” (great term) soybean oil promotes breast cancer progression.

Big moralizing gods came after the rise of civilizations.

Strong weed linked to psychosis.

Reindeer brew alcohol in their bodies to deal with cold winters.

The link between statins and type 2 diabetes is even stronger than we thought.

“Ancient monkey bone tools.” That is all.

Case study: ketogenic diet (plus exercise and time restricted eating) rescues cognition in patient with Alzheimer’s disease.

Paleo ketogenic diets for cancer: more case studies.

Military personnel who maintained strict adherence to a ketogenic diet lost weight, lost visceral fat, and improved body composition without compromising physical performance.

New Primal Blueprint Podcasts

Episode 321: Maria Emmerich: Host Elle Russ chats with keto nutritionist Maria Emmerich.

Health Coach Radio Episode 4: Laura Rupsis: Erin Power interviews her co-host, Laura Rupsis.

Each week, select Mark’s Daily Apple blog posts are prepared as Primal Blueprint Podcasts. Need to catch up on reading, but don’t have the time? Prefer to listen to articles while on the go? Check out the new blog post podcasts below, and subscribe to the Primal Blueprint Podcast here so you never miss an episode.

Media, Schmedia

Amazon removes some anti-vaccine books. Other tech companies are following suit. Maybe that’s a pretty safe target, but what about when they start targeting “dietary misinformation”?

The BMJ stops carrying infant formula advertisements.

Interesting Blog Posts

Why nutritional psychiatry is the future of mental health treatment.

How we’ll know AI is conscious.

The liver is not a filter.

Social Notes

How I train my abs.

Everything Else

Bhang, a traditional cannabis-infused drink popular during the Indian festival of Holi.

Some doctors are saying you should wean yourself off antidepressants very slowly—over months or years rather than weeks.

The fascinating effect soft foods had on human language.

Tucker Goodrich responds to Gary Taubes on seed oils.

Who were the Neanderthals?

Things I’m Up to and Interested In

Always glad to be included in “hot health trends.”

I’m glad to hear: Scientists come out against the abuse of statistical significance.

Concept I found interesting: A futurist’s dim view of the future smart home.

Guide I’m reading: The EWG’s 2019 guide to pesticides on produce.

I agree: We need to re-assess the impact of intensive grazing on carbon balance.

I’m flabbergasted: You mean I shouldn’t be injecting fruit smoothies into my veins?

Question I’m Asking

What’s your vision of the future—optimistic or dystopian?

Recipe Corner

Time Capsule

One year ago (Mar 17 – Mar 23)

Comment of the Week

“Oh, man. Thanks for the bonus ab workout from the hilarious gummy bear link.”

– Just be careful of overtraining, whitedaisy.

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The Real Deal On Keto Body Odor

I’m continuing my crusade of keto mythbusting. Recently, there was keto crotch, then keto bloat, and today I’m returning to one of the O.G. myths—keto body odor. Yes, it seems detractors of the keto diet are hell-bent on making you think your body will become a stinky, bloated mess if you dare to drop your carbs below 50 grams per day…but is it true?

Here’s the spoiler: Yes, people in online keto diet forums occasionally complain about an unpleasant change in body odor when they first go keto. There is no scientific evidence that it actually happens, nor a clear, compelling explanation for why it would. Moreover, the anecdotal (and it’s all anecdotal) evidence suggests that if it does occur, it is rare and temporary. In other words, the whole idea of keto body odor seems to be exaggerated—shocking, I know.  

That said, significant dietary changes can result in other physiological changes that may manifest in a variety of ways. Since nobody wants to be the stinky kid, let’s take this opportunity to look at what might be plausible about keto body odor and what to do if you think you’ve been afflicted.  

What Causes Body Odor?

First, let’s clarify what’s meant by “body odor.” In the medical literature, the term is used in reference to aromas associated with breath, urine, feces, vaginal secretions, sweat (usually from the axilla, or armpits), and general bodily essence as it were. Because it’s such a broad term, the causes are also extremely varied. For the purposes of this post, I’m going to use the term “body odor” to mean aromas from sweat and general bodily funk, since that’s what’s usually meant by keto body odor.

Body odor arises when odorless compounds leave the body through glands in the skin and interact with microbes living on the skin’s surface. The microbes then release chemical compounds—what we actually detect as body odor. Typically, commercial deodorants target both pieces of the equation by using antiperspirants to minimize the excretion of the odor precursors and by creating an unfavorable environment for the microbes living on the skin. There is also a genetic component to how much individuals secrete compounds that cause body odor.

Although a huge industry is built around trying to help people mask their natural odors—and suggesting that body odor is always the result of poor hygiene—bodily scents are actually quite important. Just as other animals do, humans use olfactory cues for recognizing kin, making judgments about others’ personality traits and attractiveness, and even for detecting fertility. Although we rarely recognize it, the data suggests that smell probably factors into all our face-to-face social interactions.

Body odor can also result from illness. Before the use of sophisticated modern disease detection techniques, doctors were taught to use their sniffers as a diagnostic tool. Even today, smell can be an important clue that an individual is unwell. Often these odors emanate from the breath or urine, but certain infectious and metabolic diseases can be associated with distinctive body odors. In addition to perceptible body odor, the human olfactory system can detect infection and sense illness in others, presumably an important means of preventing the spread of communicable disease.

Diet and Body Odor

The whole notion that a keto diet can cause body odor rests on the assumption that how we smell is affected by what we eat. It turns out that there is scant evidence that that is actually the case.

When I’ve taken up the question of keto diet and body odor previously, I noted that there are really only two human studies that speak to this. One small study found that women judged men’s body odor more negatively when they ate a diet that contained red meat compared to when they abstained from red meat. However, the diets differed in other ways as well. In contrast, a different study found that women rated men’s body odor more positively when the men reported eating more fat, meat, and eggs, and more negatively when they ate more carbs. Hmm.  

Besides those two small studies, evidence that diet impacts body odor seems to come primarily from studies on guinea pig urine and meadow voles—not exactly the most compelling in my opinion.

Nevertheless, the common belief persists that certain foods will make you stinky: garlic, onions, cruciferous vegetables, and spicy foods especially. However, there is no evidence that this is actually the case beyond the obvious bad breath and, ahem, flatus that these foods can cause. In fact, the one study I found on the subject reported that garlic counterintuitively improved body odor.

So, Can Keto Make You Stinky?

As you can see, there’s minimal evidence at best linking body odor to diet, and none of it has to do with the keto diet itself. Nevertheless, the belief that keto causes body odor persists…thanks to the few complaints from some in the keto community (and, just maybe, those who have nothing to do with keto but want to cause a stir). While I don’t want to dismiss anecdotal evidence out of hand, I have noticed that once people go keto, their diet is immediately to blame for every weird smell, twitch, or symptom. It’s remarkable really.

In the interest of fairness, let’s look at the explanations that are typically offered for why keto might cause body odor:

Is It the Protein?

The first hypothesis is that keto dieters smell funky because they’re eating a lot more meat. As I already mentioned, there are only two small studies that speak to this, and the findings conflict. The idea at work: protein metabolism yields ammonia as a byproduct (true), which builds up because of eating “too much protein,” resulting in body odor.  

To which I object… First of all, it’s not necessarily true that going keto means eating more meat. My version of a keto diet certainly isn’t a steak-and-bacon fest—I still eat tons of veggies. If anything, my observation is that keto folks by and large remain fearful of eating “too much” protein lest it kick them out of ketosis. (The issue is not nearly so simple as that, as I’ve explained.) In any case, even if you’re eating a good deal of meat, a healthy liver should be able to convert the amount of ammonia generated into urea and send it off to the kidneys to be excreted as urine.

Maybe It’s the “Detoxing”?

Toxins such as environmental pollutants accumulate in adipose tissue, a.k.a. fat cells, and these toxins are then released into the bloodstream when people burn fat. Because the keto diet often results in increased burning of body fat, the theory goes that the body is “detoxing” all these pollutants, and that’s what causes body odor. Detoxing is a controversial subject, and while it is true that some of these toxins can be excreted through the skin, the actual amounts are fairly small (the majority get excreted via urine and feces). Plus, it’s not evident that the toxins that are excreted through the skin cause any particular odor. And wouldn’t any diet that actually does what it’s supposed to—i.e. burn fat—be subject to the same “stinky” detox effect? I think we can safely chuck this claim.

Are Ketones a Cause?

Maybe ketones themselves make you smelly? This one has the most potential validity, as it’s well documented that acetone—one of the three ketone bodies—gets excreted when you’re in ketosis. However, it’s the cause of the familiar keto breath, not body odor per se. I’ve seen no evidence linking acetone to actual body odor.

What To Do About It

Ok, I hear you saying, “Mark, I see that you’re skeptical, but I’m telling you… I stink!” What can you do about it?

Well, since there isn’t a clearcut cause, I can’t give a clearcut answer, but I’ll tell you what the general wisdom says:

First, you can support your body’s own detoxification pathways as I describe here. Your body should be able to do a fine job taking out the garbage—it’s designed to do so and is efficient at it—but hey, why not drink some coffee and throw some broccoli sprouts on your salad. This is a “can’t hurt, might help” situation.

Same thing goes for taking some nice epsom salt baths, another common recommendation. Whether there is any truth to their detoxifying nature, you’ll get a nice dose of transdermal magnesium with a hefty side of relaxation. Throw in some essential oils and olive oil and soak your cares away… hopefully taking some of the b.o. with it.

You can also experiment with eating less protein and more carbs, but I do see potential downsides to both. You definitely don’t want to eat too little protein, since it serves such a vital role in healthy functioning, and you don’t want to add back too many carbs if being in ketosis is your goal. That said, especially with regard to the protein you probably have room to play around, so feel free to experiment if you want. I’m not overly optimistic that this is the answer, but I’m always a fan of finding what works for you.  

Or, take a wait and see approach. Most keto side effects come and go as people become keto-adapted. If your problem is keto breath, not body odor per se, you can try chewing on some fresh herbs or taking chlorophyll supplements, but these will just mask the issue.

Lastly, if it is very noticeable and very bothersome, you can—and probably should—consult your doctor. If you are excreting significant ammonia, which usually happens via the breath, this is a sign of liver or kidney problems that need to be diagnosed asap.

The Bottom Line…

Because switching to a keto diet can initiate a profound metabolic shift, some people might experience side effects. And, sure, it’s conceivable that transient changes to body odor might be one of them. The lack of evidence that body odor is strongly affected by diet (as well as my own experience interacting with the thousands of people in my community who have tried keto) leads me to believe that this is a minor problem at most—and one that most people won’t experience at all. If it’s affecting you, feel free to try to solutions I described above. They might not resolve the problem immediately, but at least they’ll likely have other positive benefits.

Ok, what say you? Are your friends giving you a wide berth now that you’re in ketosis, or are you chalking this up to yet another thing the haters are blowing out of proportion?

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References:

Groyecka A, Pisanski K, Sorokowska A, et al. Attractiveness Is Multimodal: Beauty Is Also in the Nose and Ear of the Beholder. Front Psychol. 2017;8:778.

James AG, Austin CJ, Cox DS, Taylor D, Calvert R. Microbiological and biochemical origins of human axillary odour. FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2013 Mar;83(3):527-40.

Natsch, A. What Makes Us Smell: The Biochemistry of Body Odour and the Design of New Deodorant Ingredients. CHIMIA Intl J Chem. 2015 Aug;69(7-8):414-420.

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5 Hemp Oil Benefits For Health and Wellness

Have you tried hemp oil?

After almost a century of being outlawed, hemp—a form of cannabis with extremely low levels of psychoactive THC—is now legal in the United States. This is big news for people interested in the therapeutic effects of cannabidiol (or CBD) because—while hemp doesn’t contain enough THC, the compound that provides the “high” of cannabis, or any other psychoactive compounds—it does contain cannabidiol (CBD).

For years, all anyone talked about when they talked about cannabis was the THC content. Breeders focused on driving THC levels as high as possible and ignored the other compounds. Even pharmaceutical companies interested in the medical applications of cannabis focused on the THC, producing synthetic THC-only drugs that performed poorly compared to the real thing. It turns out that all the other components of cannabis matter, too, and foremost among them is CBD.

CBD doesn’t get you high, but it does have big physiological impacts. These days, researchers are exploring CBD as a treatment for epilepsy, anxiety, and insomnia. They’ve uncovered potential anti-inflammatory, anxiolytic, and immunomodulatory properties. And now that it’s quasi legal, hundreds of CBD-rich hemp oil products are appearing on the market.

What are the purported benefits of using CBD-rich hemp oil, and what does the evidence say?

Although CBD research is growing, it’s still understudied and I expect I’ll have to update this post in the near future with more information. But for now, here’s a rundown of what the research says.

The Health Benefits of CBD In Hemp Oil

CBD For Anxiety Reduction

Anxiety can be crippling. I don’t have generalized social anxiety, but I, like anyone else, know what it feels like to be anxious about something. It happens to everyone. Now imagine feeling that all the time, particularly when it matters most—around other people. The average person doesn’t consider the import and impact of anxiety on a person’s well-being. If CBD can reduce anxiety, that might just be its most important feature. Does it?

Before a simulated public speaking event, people with generalized social anxiety disorder were either given 600 mg of CBD or a placebo. Those who received CBD reported less anxiety, reduced cognitive impairment, and more comfort while giving the speech. Seeing as how people without social anxiety disorder claim public speaking as their biggest fear, that CBD helped people with social anxiety disorder give a speech is a huge effect.

This appears to be legit. A placebo-controlled trial is nothing to sniff at.

CBD For Sleep

A 2017 review provides a nice summary of the effects of CBD on sleep:

In insomnia patients, 160 mg/day of CBD increased sleep time and reduced the number of arousals (not that kind) during the night.

Lower doses are linked to increased arousals and greater wakefulness.

High dose CBD improved sleep; adding THC reduced slow wave sleep.

In preliminary research with Parkinson’s patients, CBD reduced REM-related behavioral disorder—which is when you basically act out your dreams as they’re happening.

More recently, a large case series (big bunch of case studies done at once) was performed giving CBD to anxiety patients who had trouble sleeping. Almost 80% had improvements in anxiety and 66% had improvements in sleep (although the sleep improvements fluctuated over time).

Mental Health

While its psychoactive counterpart THC has been embroiled in controversial links with psychosis and schizophrenia for decades, CBD may be an effective counterbalancing force for mental health.

In patients with schizophrenia, six weeks of adjunct treatment with cannabidiol resulted in lower rates of psychotic symptoms and made clinicians more likely to rate them as “improved” and made researchers more likely to rate them as “improved” and not “severely unwell.” There were also improvements in cognitive performance and overall function. It seems the “adjunct” part of this study was key, as other studies using cannabidiol as the only treatment mostly failed to note improvements.

This was placebo controlled, so it makes a good case for CBD hemp oil as adjunct treatment (in addition to regular therapy) in people with schizophrenia.

Among 11 PTSD patients who took an average of 50 mg of CBD per day for 8 weeks, 10 (90%) experienced a 28% improvement in symptoms. No one dropped out or complained about side effects. CBD seemed to particularly benefit those patients who had issues with nightmares.

This is promising but preliminary. This was an 11-person case study, not a placebo-controlled trial.

Epilepsy

A recent review of four human trials lays out the evidence: More than a third of all epilepsy patients experienced 50% or greater seizure reductions with just 20 mg of CBD. The effect of CBD on seizure activity is so widely acknowledged and understood that the only FDA-approved CBD-based product is Epidiolex, a plant-based CBD extract used to treat seizures in patients with Dravet syndrome and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome.

CBD for epilepsy is legit. Side note: I wonder how CBD would combine with ketogenic dieting for epilepsy control.

Pain

By far the biggest draw for medical consumers of CBD is its supposed ability to nullify pain.

In one study, researchers induced arthritis in rats with intra-articular injections, then gave them CBD. Rats given CBD were able to put more weight on their joints and handle a heavier load before withdrawing. Local CBD reduced nerve damage.

That’s great for pet rats. What about people?

There actually isn’t a lot of strong data on pain management using CBD by itself. Far more robust is the evidence for using CBD with THC for pain. According to this group of researchers, the two compounds exert “constituent synergy” against neuropathic pain. One study found that low doses of each were more effective combined than high doses of either alone in neuropathic cancer-related pain. Another gave a THC/CBD oromucosal spray to otherwise treatment-resistant neuropathy patients, finding that the spray reduced pain, improved sleep, and lessened the severity of symptoms.

Anything Else?

Anecdotal evidence for pain relief and other benefits with CBD is vast. Chris Kresser, a practitioner and researcher I trust, swears by it. I have employees who use it quite frequently, reporting that it improves their sleep, hones their focus, reduces pain, speeds recovery, and reduces anxiety. These things are always hard to evaluate, but I can say that my people do great work, and I have zero reason to distrust them.

In later posts, I’ll probably revisit some of these other, more theoretical or anecdotal potential benefits to see if there’s any evidence in support.

Is It Safe?

A recent study gave up to 6000 mg of CBD to healthy subjects, finding it well tolerated and the side effects mild and limited to gastrointestinal distress, nausea, somnolence, headaches, and diarrhea. For comparison’s sake, keep in mind that a typical dose of CBD is 20 mg.

Mouse research indicate that extended high-dose CBD (15-30 mg/kg of bodyweight, or 1200-2400 mg per day for an 80 kg man) might impair fertility. Male mice who took high-dose CBD for 34 days straight experienced a 76% reduction in testosterone, reduced sperm production, and had dysfunctional weird-looking sperm. In the 30 mg/kg group, the number of Sertoli cells—testicular cells where sperm production takes place and sperm is incubated—actually dropped. Male mice taking CBD also were worse at mounting females and had fewer litters.

Those are really high doses. For epilepsy, a common dose is 600 mg/day, and that’s for a severe condition. Most other CBD therapies use much smaller doses in the range of 20-50 mg/day. Long term safety may still be an issue at these lower doses, but we don’t have any good evidence that this is the case.

There’s some evidence that the dosages of CBD required to achieve anti-inflammatory effects are also high enough to induce cytotoxicity in healthy cells, though that’s preliminary in vitro (petri dish) research and as of yet not applicable to real world applications. Time will tell, though, as the legal environment opens up and we accumulate more research.

Is Isolated CBD the Same As Whole Plant Extracts?

As we’ve learned over the past dozen years of reading about nutrition and human health, whole foods tend to be more effective than isolated components. Whole foods have several advantages:

  • They contain all the components related to the compound, especially the ones we haven’t discovered and isolated. Supplements only contain the isolated compounds we’ve been able to quantify.
  • They capture all the synergistic effects of the multiple components working together. Isolated supplements miss that synergy unless they specifically add it back in, and even then they’ll probably miss something.

It’s likely that whole plant hemp extracts high in CBD are superior to isolated synthetic CBD for the same reason. Is there any evidence of that?

A high-CBD cannabis whole plant extract reduces gut inflammation and damage in a mouse model of inflammatory bowel disease. Purified CBD does not.

Even at a 2:1 CBD:THC ratio, co-ingesting isolated CBD with isolated THC using a vaporizer fails to reduce the psychotic and memory-impairing effects of THC. In another study, however, smoking cannabis naturally rich in both CBD and THC completely prevented the memory impairment.

And as we saw in the pain section above, THC combined with CBD seems more effective against pain than either alone.

That’s not to say isolated (even synthetic in some cases—see note below) CBD isn’t helpful. We saw it improve joint pain and reduce nerve damage in arthritic rats. It’s just that full-spectrum hemp oil containing multiple naturally-occurring compounds is probably ideal for general health applications. Specific conditions requiring high doses may be another question entirely. Again, we’ll find out as more research comes out.

A word about synthetics: this is fodder for a follow-up, but it appears there may be additional concerns with synthetic CBD, and even supposedly “natural” CBD companies have in some cases allegedly added ingredients to their formulas without letting consumers know.

Is It Legal?

CBD-rich hemp oil lies in a legal grey area. The recently passed Farm Bill allows people to grow and make products from industrial hemp, as long as it contains less than 0.3% THC. That means CBD derived from industrial hemp is legal at a federal level. But because the Farm Bill has provisions that allow states to set their own rules, legality at a state level is more complicated.

States where hemp is still illegal—South Dakota, Idaho, and Nebraska—do not permit the sale or use of hemp-derived CBD oil.

In states that permit recreational cannabis—California, Vermont, Massachusetts, Maine, Oregon, Colorado, Washington, Nevada, Michigan, and Alaska—CBD derived from both hemp and psychoactive cannabis is legal.

In all other states, hemp-derived CBD is legal.

The FDA has yet to approve of CBD, so most of the big online retailers like Amazon and Walmart don’t allow CBD products to be advertised. However, Amazon sells a ton of “hemp extract” tinctures and oils with “hemp extract content” listed in milligram dosages—a workaround for listing the CBD content.

If you’re looking for CBD-rich hemp oil, watch out for culinary hemp oil, which comes in larger quantities and has no discernible CBD content. CBD-rich hemp oil will come in dropper bottles, not liters.

You can also buy directly from manufacturers online who proudly advertise their CBD content. I’ve heard good things about Ojai Energetics and Sabaidee, though I haven’t used either.

Many health food stores sell it. Surprisingly, I’ve seen it in every pet store I’ve entered in the last half year.

Word of Caution: Because it isn’t regulated by the FDA yet, there’s no telling exactly what you’re getting. Choose a product with verifiable lab tests. Many CBD hemp oil products have far less CBD than advertised. In addition to CBD content, the most reputable manufacturers also test for pesticides, heavy metals, mycotoxins, and bacteria and advertise their results.

CBD-rich hemp oil is a hot topic these days, and it’s only going to get hotter. I think the compound shows great promise in promoting health and wellness, and I’ll look forward to doing more research as it unfolds.

For now, what about you? Do you use CBD? Have you noticed any benefits? Any downsides? Share your questions and feedback down below.

Thanks for reading, everyone. Take care.

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References:

Bergamaschi MM, Queiroz RH, Chagas MH, et al. Cannabidiol reduces the anxiety induced by simulated public speaking in treatment-naïve social phobia patients. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2011;36(6):1219-26.

Lattanzi S, Brigo F, Trinka E, et al. Efficacy and Safety of Cannabidiol in Epilepsy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Drugs. 2018;78(17):1791-1804.

Elms L, Shannon S, Hughes S, Lewis N. Cannabidiol in the Treatment of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Case Series. J Altern Complement Med. 2018;

Serpell M, Ratcliffe S, Hovorka J, et al. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel group study of THC/CBD spray in peripheral neuropathic pain treatment. Eur J Pain. 2014;18(7):999-1012.

Silva RL, Silveira GT, Wanderlei CW, et al. DMH-CBD, a cannabidiol analog with reduced cytotoxicity, inhibits TNF production by targeting NF-kB activity dependent on A receptor. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2019;368:63-71.

Carvalho RK, Souza MR, Santos ML, et al. Chronic cannabidiol exposure promotes functional impairment in sexual behavior and fertility of male mice. Reprod Toxicol. 2018;81:34-40.

Morgan CJA, Freeman TP, Hindocha C, Schafer G, Gardner C, Curran HV. Individual and combined effects of acute delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol on psychotomimetic symptoms and memory function. Transl Psychiatry. 2018;8(1):181.

Morgan CJ, Schafer G, Freeman TP, Curran HV. Impact of cannabidiol on the acute memory and psychotomimetic effects of smoked cannabis: naturalistic study: naturalistic study [corrected]. Br J Psychiatry. 2010;197(4):285-90.

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