Better diagnosis to improve breast cancer treatment

Breast cancer patients will soon have a better chance of fighting the disease thanks to new pathology guidelines created by University of Queensland researchers.

The guidelines allow pathologists to identify which patients have more aggressive forms of breast cancer, which means they can be classified appropriately and their treatment can be tailored.

Physical activity

Exercise is one of the best things women can do for themselves, says director of the Program for Young Women with Breast Cancer at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute. It doesn’t mean marathons or hot yoga, but walking three to five times a week can make a huge difference in terms of energy, stamina and how you feel during treatment. Partridge says that while exercising during treatment won’t be easy for every woman with breast cancer, it can be worthwhile if there are days during treatment cycles where women feel up to it.

Minority breast cancer patients tend to have higher rates of adjuvant treatment underuse. We implemented a web-based intervention that closes referral loops between surgeons and oncologists at inner-city safety net hospitals serving high volumes of minority breast cancer patients to assist these hospitals to improve care coordination.

Abstract and Introduction

Breast imaging has made huge advances in the last decade, and along with newer techniques to diagnose primary breast cancer, many novel methods are being used and look promising in detecting distant metastasis, recurrent disease and assessing response to treatment. Full-field digital mammography optimizes the lesion-background contrast and gives better sensitivity, and it is possible to see through the dense tissues by altering computer windows; this may be particularly useful in younger women with dense breasts. The need for repeat imaging is reduced, with the added advantage of reduced radiation dose to patients. Computer-aided detection systems may help the radiologist in interpretation of both conventional and digital mammograms. MRI has a role in screening women at high risk for breast cancer. It also aids in cancer management by assessing response to treatment and can help in deciding appropriate surgery by providing accurate information on the extent of the tumor. Newer diagnostic techniques such as sestamibi scans, optical imaging and molecular diagnostic techniques look promising, but need more investigation into their use. Their roles will appear clearer in coming years, and they may prove to be of help in further investigating lesions that are indeterminate on standard imaging. Other upcoming techniques are contrast-enhanced mammography and tomosynthesis. These may give additional information in indeterminate lesions, and when used in screening they aid in reducing recall rates, as shown in recent studies. PET/computed tomography has a role in detecting local disease recurrence and distant metastasis in breast cancer patients.

Link between obesity and liver cancer

The findings suggest that rising rates of overweight and obesity worldwide about 1 billion people are projected to be obese by 2030 could lead to an increase in the number of cases of severe liver disease and cancer in the future, the researchers said.

Bernstein said the findings “highlight the importance of early intervention for this disorder to prevent significant liver disease which may occur decades in the future.”

Obesity, an abnormal medical condition, is becoming one of the most serious public health problems worldwide and its prevalence has dramatically increased in the last few decades. Obesity is defined as having a body mass index equal to or higher than 30 kg/m2. The marked increase in the worldwide incidence of obesity, particularly in children, has been noted by the World Health Organization.

Factors:

Factors such as alcohol consumption and smoking by the men were taken into account and the researchers excluded men who received a diagnosis of alcoholic liver disease during follow-up from their analysis, but this did not significantly change their overall findings about excess risk associated with high BMI.

This was an observational study, so no firm conclusions can be drawn about cause and effect. However, the researchers said it was likely that the increased prevalence of overweight and obesity around the world could lead to an increase in the total number of cases with severe liver disease in the future, including an increasing incidence of liver cancer.

Immune control: Treating brain injury with an on/off switch

Despite active immune responses, dapoxetine establish latency. In a related process, these viruses also persistently replicate by using a mechanism that requires different viral genes than acute-phase replication. Many questions remain about the role of immunity in chronic gammaherpesvirus infection, including whether the immune system controls latency by regulating latent cell numbers and other properties and what specific immune mediators control latency and persistent replication.

Understanding this complex interplay requires systematic immune monitoring of well characterized human cohorts, but also experimental approaches using primary human cells and genetically modified mouse models. Using these models, we begin to understand the immune recognition of HBV and how it influences the outcome of HBV infection. In this paper we review the current knowledge about virus-host interactions and how it influences the outcome of HBV infection and describe the immune signatures associated with clinical recovery and/or persistent infection.

Vaccination relies on the immune system’s memory of antigens that it encounters, yet our understanding of this fundamental characteristic remains limited. Sprent and Tough discuss current thinking on how memory T cells develop and the various factors that regulate their actions. Some new thoughts on how immune memory is maintained are also offered by Fearon and colleagues, who reason that memory lymphocytes might be akin to self-renewing stem cells that are held in a state of arrested differentiation and perpetual readiness for encounters with antigens.

About Erectile Dysfunction

What Is Erectile Dysfunction?

Erectile dysfunction has many possible causes and can be the first symptom of an undiagnosed condition. Erections are caused by the balance of blood flow into and out of the penis. Conditions that result in changes in the penis’ blood flow are common causes of ED. The 2 most common medical problems that may cause ED are atherosclerosis and diabetes. Obesity is also associated with both blood vessel changes and hormone changes that negatively affect erections. Another cause of ED is damage to the nerves involved in getting erections. This can happen with diseases of the nervous system (eg, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson disease) or with surgery (eg, for prostate cancer). Hormone problems, like low testosterone, and side effects of medications, like those used to treat high blood pressure, can also cause ED.

Erectile dysfunction, also referred to as impotence, is a problem getting or keeping an erection hard enough for satisfactory sexual performance. Erectile dysfunction is present in 1 of 2 men older than 40 years. Other types of male sexual dysfunction can include problems with libido (sexual interest), orgasm, or ejaculation.

Erectile dysfunction problem o NO?

You can take Viagra, Cialis or Levitra (there are many other pills, Kamagra, for example) and everything will be fine. The penis will be big! And not to ejaculate quickly – take dapoxetine

Treatments for Erectile Dysfunction

A wide range of treatment options are available and allow physicians to tailor treatment to a patient’s specific goals. Erectile dysfunction should always be evaluated by a medical professional. Many products available on the Internet or in stores claim to help ED but are not proven to be safe or effective. The first step in treating ED is often making lifestyle changes. Losing weight by dieting and exercising may be all that is needed to improve erections. You should also reduce alcohol intake and avoid smoking and illicit drug use. If ED is the result of a medication side effect, your physician may recommend alternative medications. Psychosocial therapy is effective when emotional or psychological factors contribute to ED. Medications are commonly used to treat ED. All ED medications work by increasing the blood flow to the penis. These pills are safe and effective when used under the supervision of a physician.

Erectile Dysfunction in Young Men

Introduction

Erectile dysfunction (ED) is an important health concern that can significantly affect a man’s psychosocial well-being. ED has traditionally been considered a disease of old age; however, contemporary evidence suggests a growing incidence of ED in men younger than 40 years. The process of achieving an erection is multifaceted; there are many potential mechanisms that can be disrupted. It is critical to identify the specific causes of ED before proceeding with potentially costly and invasive therapeutic options. Advances in diagnostic and treatment modalities offer opportunities to identify and manage young men with ED.

To provide an update on the prevalence and risk factors of ED in young men and to provide a framework to guide clinicians in identifying and managing the affected young man.
Methods

Comprehensive review of the literature pertaining to ED in young men.

ED in young men was assessed by outlining the prevalence according to recent epidemiologic studies. The pathophysiology, diagnostic considerations, risk factors, and etiologies were reviewed.
Results

Large multinational studies have estimated the prevalence of ED in young men to be as high as 30%. Several studies have stratified the etiologies of ED into psychogenic and organic causes. Psychogenic etiologies of ED include depression, anxiety, and partner-related difficulties. These patients tend to experience sudden onset of symptoms, with decreased libido and good quality of spontaneous or self-stimulated erections. Organic etiologies include vasculogenic, endocrinologic, neurogenic, iatrogenic, and structural components. These patients usually experience gradual onset of symptoms and a low to normal libido. Conservative treatments such as phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors continue to be the mainstay treatment.

Conclusions

ED in young men is an increasingly common condition. A careful diagnostic evaluation should focus on the identification of any underlying etiology to ensure appropriate management of patients.